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Organizational Behaviour & Human Resources

Tips on finding articles, books & background info on OBHR topics; labour law sources; writing & citing help.

Citing Sources in APA Style

Publication Manual of the APA, 7th Edition

Why do you need to cite your sources?

Primarily, it is to avoid allegations of plagiarism and academic misconduct.

Secondarily, citing sources allows the reader to identify the sources that you relied on for your research.

When do you need to cite your sources?

It's easy: whenever you paraphrase the ideas of others, whenever you use a direct quotation, or whenever you cite a fact that isn't common knowledge, you need to cite your original sources, whether they are books, articles, lecture slides, material posted in Sakai, personal communications, or a web site.

The Two Elements of APA Style

  • The citations that you include in the text of your paper are called in-text citations and are similar to footnotes or end notes.
  • The bibliography at the end of the paper is called the Reference List.

Keys to Success

The keys to successfully citing your sources in APA Style are:

  1. keeping track of your sources (i.e. what they are, and where you found them).
  2. determining the type of document you are citing (e.g., books, articles, web sites, personal communications, etc.) so that you can find the correct format to follow.

Teach yourself APA Style

  • The best way to learn APA Style is to consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, which is now in its 7th edition. However, if you do not have access to a copy, you can consult these guides for tips on APA Style.

Official APA Style resources:

A-Z Learning Services @ Brock University:

Citing Business Sources in APA Style Guide

Theses guides include detailed examples of how to cite a wide variety of business and secondary data sources.

Citing Legal Materials

The following sites provide guidance on citing legal materials such as cases and legislation:

Citing LabourSource (formerly Labour Spectrum)

The LabourSource database contains a variety of types of sources such as:

  1. cases and decisions
  2. legislation
  3. commentary.

A generic APA Style reference list entry and an example for each of these types appears below.

1. Cases and Decisions (e.g., Labour Arbitration Cases)

Name v. Name, Volume Source Abbreviation (Series) Page (Date)

Ontario v. O.P.S.E.U., 219 L.A.C. (4th) 151 (2012)

2. Legislation (Statutes and Regulations)

Legislation is cited in APA Style according to standard legal citation style. In Canada, we follow the Canadian Guide to Uniform Legal Citation.

Title of Act,  Statute volume abbreviation, year, chapter and section number (if necessary)

Labour Relations Act, S.O. 1995, s. 70 

3. Commentary (e.g., Brown & Beatty)

There are several ways to cite entries in an online reference work such as Brown & Beatty's Canadian Labour Arbitration.

Reference List Sample Citation for an entire reference work

Author A. & Author B. (Eds.). (Year). Title of work. Publisher


Brown, D.J.M., Beatty, D. M., & Beatty, A.J. (Eds.). (2019). Canadian Labour Arbitration, 5th ed. Thomson Reuters.


Reference List Sample Citation for an entry from a reference work (with no page numbers).

If there are no page numbers, APA Style allows you to refer to the chapter title or entry title. Since the paragraph number is often used in references to Brown & Beatty, you can include both elements as illustrated below.

Title of chapter or entry. (Year)  In. A. Editor, B. Editor. (Eds.), Title of book . Publisher. 

1:5300 Jurisdictional Error. (2019). In Brown, D.J.M., Beatty, D. M., & Beatty, A.J. (Eds.), Canadian Labour Arbitration, 5th ed. Thomson Reuters.