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Operations Management

Finding articles, books & background info on OPER topics; quality management; writing & citing help.

Academic Integrity & Plagiarism

Brock University's Academic Integrity Policy provides clear expectations for the ethical use of sources and examples of dishonest behaviors including "Using direct quotations or large sections of paraphrased material without acknowledgment" (See Appendix Two of the policy for a complete list).

How to Avoid Plagiarism

Some students might be confused about when to quote, when to paraphrase and how to avoid plagiarism. The following sources may provide additional insight into the difference between summarizing, paraphrasing, quoting and plagiarism, so that you can give appropriate credit for the sources that you rely on in your academic work.

Citing Sources in APA Style

Publication Manual of the APA, 7th Edition

Why do you need to cite your sources?

Primarily, it is to avoid allegations of plagiarism and academic misconduct.

Secondarily, citing sources allows the reader to identify the sources that you relied on for your research.

When do you need to cite your sources?

It's easy: whenever you paraphrase the ideas of others, whenever you use a direct quotation, or whenever you cite a fact that isn't common knowledge, you need to cite your original sources, whether they are books, articles, lecture slides, material posted in Sakai, personal communications, or a web site.

The Two Elements of APA Style

  • The citations that you include in the text of your paper are called in-text citations and are similar to footnotes or end notes.
  • The bibliography at the end of the paper is called the Reference List.

Keys to Success

The keys to successfully citing your sources in APA Style are:

  1. keeping track of your sources (i.e. what they are, and where you found them).
  2. determining the type of document you are citing (e.g., books, articles, web sites, personal communications, etc.) so that you can find the correct format to follow.

Teach yourself APA Style

  • The best way to learn APA Style is to consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, which is now in its 7th edition. However, if you do not have access to a copy, you can consult these guides for tips on APA Style.

Official APA Style resources:

A-Z Learning Services @ Brock University:

Citing Business Sources in APA Style Guide

Theses guides include detailed examples of how to cite a wide variety of business and secondary data sources.

Other Citation Style Guides