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Tourism Studies

Citing your sources in APA Style

APA Style Manual Why do you need to cite your sources?

Primarily, it is to avoid allegations of plagiarism and academic misconduct. Secondarily, citing sources allows the reader to identify the sources that you relied on for your research.

When do you need to cite your sources?

It's easy: whenever you paraphrase the ideas of others, whenever you use a direct quotation, or whenever you cite a fact that isn't common knowledge, you need to cite your original sources, whether they are books, articles, or web sites.

There are two elements to APA Style citations:

  • Reference citations in text: these are the citations that you include in the text of your paper.
    • For example: ... "people need to be reminded that polar bears are unique and different" (Lemelin, Fennell, & Smale, 2008).
  • Reference List: this is the bibliography at the end of your paper. Each item that you cited in text must have a corresponding entry in the Reference List. For example:
    • Lemelin, R.H., Fennell, D. & Smale, B. (2008). Polar bear viewers as deep ecotourists: how specialised are they? Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 16(1), 42-62.

The keys to successfully citing your sources in APA style are:

  1. Keeping track of your sources (what they are and where you found them).
  2. Determining the type of document or source that you are citing (e.g. books, articles, web sites, etc.) so that you can find the correct format to follow.
  3. If you are not sure about 1 or 2, please consult the Ask Us Desk in the Learning Commons for assistance.

APA Style Help

APA 6th edition

APA Style Tutorials & Help

The following resource provides assistance in citing sources according the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA):