There is no one database that covers all types of literature. Start with an interdisciplinary database like SuperSearch, Google Scholar or Web of Science. Narrow and filter search results and use subject-specific databases next.
Finding individual articles by citation using Omni is fairly straightforward.
Using figshare is an excellent way to search for data and information.
There are several services that translate journal name abbreviations to full names including All That JAS, Web of Science Journal Title Abbreviations, and Brock Library's Journals (just enter abbreviation - full name will come out if found).