APA Style uses the author-date citation system (rather than footnotes or endnotes), which are often called in-text citations, parenthetical citations, or narrative citations. These are discussed in the Seventh Edition in Chapter 8, Works Credited in the Text.
To cite a source in the text of your written assignment, indicate the last name of the author(s), or if there is no author, the first few words of the document title (in quotation marks), then the page, chapter, figure, or table numbers (if applicable). Narrative citations incorporate the author's name and date of publication within the text. Parenthetical citations place the author and date in parentheses after a quotation or paraphrase. If a publication was written by an organization (such as an association, corporation, or other type of group), then you need to spell out the name of the group in full.
You must provide a specific page number (or specific part) when quoting directly from a source, and you are encouraged to to do so when paraphrasing.
...according to Ojala (2006), “transformational librarians look at the changes in the information world and take advantage of those changes to enhance their roles”(p. 5).
..."teams at the top are the most difficult" (Katzenbach & Smith, 1999, p. 3).
There are nine ways to build demand through marketing (Kotler, 1999, p. 47).
Financial literacy is an essential skill for Canadians (Task Force on Financial Literacy, 2010, p. 4).
Facebook addicts are a great target market ("Your piece of Facebook action", 2012, p. 11).
Indicate the last name of the author(s) or, if there is no author, the first few words of the document title (in quotation marks), then the year of publication, then cite the nearest heading and the number of the paragraphs following, preceded by the abbreviation para.
1. Example of a parenthetical citation, personal author:
Parking meters and vending machines must be reprogrammed to accept the new loonie and toonie (Caton, 2012, para. 5).
2. Example of a parenthetical citation, group author:
Vending machines are a key retail channel in captive locations such as hospitals (Euromonitor, 2012, Trends section, para. 4).
In order to differentiate between two or more works by the same author that were published in the same year, assign letter suffixes to the publication year, both in the in-text citation and in the corresponding entries in the reference list.
1. Example (group author):
(Datamonitor, 2011a, p.2)
(Datamonitor, 2011b, p.5)
2. Example (personal author):
(Porter & Rivkin, 2012a, p. 54)
(Porter & Rivkin, 2012b, p.80)
Personal communications include nonrecoverable resources such as email or text messages, telephone conversations, Teams or Zoom chats, etc. Include the initial and surname of the communicator, and an exact date, if possible. These citations may be formatted as narrative citations, or as parenthetical citations. A corresponding Reference List entry is not required.
Narrative citation: L. Lowry (personal communication, February 26, 2021)
Parenthetical citation: (L. Lowry, personal communication, February 26, 2021)