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ECON 2P17: Economic Development

Citing Sources in APA Style

Publication Manual of the APA, 7th Edition

Why do you need to cite your sources?

Primarily, it is to avoid allegations of plagiarism and academic misconduct.

Secondarily, citing sources allows the reader to identify the sources that you relied on for your research.

When do you need to cite your sources?

It's easy: whenever you paraphrase the ideas of others, whenever you use a direct quotation, or whenever you cite a fact that isn't common knowledge, you need to cite your original sources, whether they are books, articles, lecture slides, material posted in Sakai, personal communications, or a web site.

The Two Elements of APA Style

  • The citations that you include in the text of your paper are called in-text citations and are similar to footnotes or end notes.
  • The bibliography at the end of the paper is called the Reference List.

Keys to Success

The keys to successfully citing your sources in APA Style are:

  1. keeping track of your sources (i.e. what they are, and where you found them).
  2. determining the type of document you are citing (e.g., books, articles, web sites, personal communications, etc.) so that you can find the correct format to follow.

Teach yourself APA Style

  • The best way to learn APA Style is to consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, which is now in its 7th edition. However, if you do not have access to a copy, you can consult these guides for tips on APA Style.

Official APA Style resources:

A-Z Learning Services @ Brock University:

Other Citation Styles