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The 4 W's

Who, When, What and Where

The 4 W's are the main pieces of information you will need to reference other scholar's work. These pieces help identify what resource you are referring to and are the main pieces of information you want to keep track of during your searching so you don't loose any important resources. 

Who - Author(s), group or organization that created this resource

When - Date of publication

What - Title of the Article

Where - Journal name, volume and issue numbers and page numbers of the publication the article is found in

Having all of these pieces means the reader will be able to understand and find the original source you are referring to with ease!

Citation Styles

Chicago style citations are unique in that it includes two documentation systems. The first is known as the humanities (notes and bibliography) style and is more often used in the fields of arts and humanities. The second is the author-date system, used more often in the natural sciences.

Chicago Style Online Guides

Chicago Style Guide Book

MLA Style

MLA style is a commonly used style found in the humanities including language and literature. MLA is an acronym for Modern Language Association.

MLA Style Online Guides

MLA Style Guide Book

APA Style (7th Edition)

APA Style 7th edition book cover

APA Style is often used for writing in the fields of psychology, business, communications, nursing, history and social sciences. APA stands for the American Psychological Association.

The following resources provide assistance in citing sources according to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th edition: