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External Analysis Research

A guide to identifying secondary sources for conducting an analysis of the external environment as part of the strategic planning process.

Citing Sources in Presentations

  • The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA Style) was designed to assist writers in preparing research papers (such as journal articles) and therefore does not actually contain any guidelines on preparing powerpoint presentations according to APA Style.
  • Some guidance can be found in  Chapter 14 of Displaying your findings as well as on the APA Style Blog.
  • Typically, if you are required to create a presentation according to APA Style, you should clarify with your professor if he/she actually just expects you to put your in-text citations and references in APA Style.

 In-text citations in Presentations

  • You can cite references within the text of your presentation slide using the same APA format for in-text citations (Author, Date) as in a written essay.
  • Remember to cite sources for direct quotations, paraphrased materials, and sources of facts (such as market share data in the example slide).
  • Your list References must include the sources cited on your presentation slides.

Sample APA in-text citations


Using Images on Slides

If you use images, such as photographs or clipart, on your slides, you should also credit the source of the image. Do not reproduce images without permission. There are sources for clipart and images that are "public use" according to Creative Commons licensing such as Flickr:

Photographs are treated as figures in APA Style. Therefore, the citation for the source of the image is included as a footnote in the figure caption underneath the photograph which includes the figure number and a description. The source of the image obtained is attributed using the following model:

Figure 1. Blah blah blah. From Title of Image, by Author, Year. Retrieved from URL.

Infinite loop sculpture

Figure 1. Photograph of a sculpture in Cupertino, California. From Infinite Loop II by Kurafire (2007, January 3).  Retrieved from

Another option for citing image sources is to create a separate slide titled "Photo credits" or "Image Sources". For more assistance on the various ways to cite images in presentations (but not necessarily in APA format), see:

  • Image Citation Guide (UBC Copyright Office)
  • How to credit photos ( [PDF]. A guide which provides examples of various ways to credit image sources in Powerpoint, on webpages, and in print materials.

For more assistance in creating figures in APA Style, see the following sections & pages of the Publication Manual, 6th edition:

  • 2.12 Footnotes (pages 37 -38)
  • 5.20 - 5.25 Figures (pages 150 - 167)

Using Reference Lists in Presentations

Option 1: Create a References handout (recommended)

Option 2: Create a References slide (if you only have a few items in your list)

  • use a large enough font (e.g., 24 points)
  • limit to 12 lines of text on each slide