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MGMT 4P90: Business Strategy

A guide to information sources for business strategy and strategic management research (external analysis, industry research, current developments); citing sources in APA and criteria for evaluating sources.

Citing your sources in APA Style

Why do you need to cite your sources?

Primarily, it is to avoid allegations of plagiarism and academic misconduct.

Secondarily, citing sources allows the reader to identify the sources that you relied on for your research.

When do you need to cite your sources?

It's easy: whenever you paraphrase the ideas of others, whenever you use a direct quotation, or whenever you cite a fact that isn't common knowledge, you need to cite your original sources, whether they are books, articles, or web site.

The Two Elements of APA Style

  • The citations that you include in the text of your paper are called in-text citations and are similar to footnotes or end notes.
  • The bibliography at the end of the paper is called the Reference List.

Keys to Success

The keys to successfully citing your sources in APA Style are:

  1. keeping track of your sources (i.e. what they are, and where you found them).
  2. determining the type of document you are citing (e.g., books, articles, web sites, etc.) so that you can find the correct format to follow.
  3. If you are not sure about 1 or 2, please contact the Ask Us Desk in the Learning Commons for assistance.

Teach yourself APA Style

  • The best way to learn APA Style is to consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, which is now in its 6th edition.
    • Multiple copies are available in the Library on RESERVE (BF 76.7 P82 2010) for 3hr, 24 hr, or 48 hr loan periods).
  • "The Basics of APA Style" is an free online tutorial available on the APA style website.
  • The APA Formatting and Style Guide, from the Purdue Online Writing Laboratory, includes detailed explanations, plenty of sample references, and a sample APA Style paper.


Citing Business Sources in APA Style Guide

This guide, prepared by the Business Librarian at Brock University, includes detailed examples of references from some of Brock University Library's Business databases, as well as guidance on citing sources and images in presentations.

Citing Industry & Market Research Reports

1. Determine if the report was written by an individual (analyst).

  • If so, then use the name of the analyst as the author of the report.
  • If not, then use the name of the publisher or organization as the author of the report

2. Here are suggested APA Style (6th edition) citations for reports from Mintel Academic and IBISWorld, where the analyst is named as the author of the report.