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Citing & Referencing

Citing Artificial Intelligence (AI)

How to cite output produced by generative AI tools like ChatGPT, New Bing, Google Bard, etc. is still being determined by the global academic community. We expect to see standards of practice emerge as AI tools develop. In the meantime, it is important to be as transparent as possible when using AI tools to assist you with assignments. 

Keep in mind that:

  • ChatGPT and other generative AI tools are not considered to be authors;
  • Prompts and generated outputs/answers are considered unpublished sources;
  • Most citation Style Guides do not (yet) offer formatting guidelines for AI tools;
  • Generated outputs usually cannot be linked to or recovered after creation, making it difficult to review the original text;
  • If the use of AI tools is supported by your course instructor, refer to their preferred method of citing.

If in doubt, ask your instructor or TA for guidance.

Explore these links for other formatting recommendations: